Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan from baker’s yeast has been studied by a number of independent research groups and companies worldwide.

Below is an excerpt of the scientific literature concerning beta-1,3/1,6-glucan from baker’s yeast. You can also download this overview in PDF.

Immune function

Clinical studies have shown that beta-glucan from baker’s yeast improves immune function. Substantial pre-clinical research constitutes the foundation for the clinical studies

  • Rice, et al., Oral delivery and gastrointestinal absorption of soluble glucans stimulate increased resistance to infectious challenge.J PharmacolExpTher, 2005.314(3):1079-1086. ⱡ
  • Tsukada, et al., Immunopotentiationof intraepithelial lymphocytes in the intestine by oral administrations of beta-glucan.Cell Immunol, 2003.221(1):1-5. ⱡ β
  • Javmen, et al., Beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces IFN-gamma production in vivo in BALB/c mice. In Vivo, 2015. 29(3):359-363. ⱡ
  • Lehne, et al., Oral administration of a new soluble branched beta-1,3-D-glucan is well tolerated and can lead to increased salivary concentrations of immunoglobulin A in healthy volunteers.ClinExpImmunol, 2006.143(1):65-69.* β
  • Talbott and Talbott, Baker’s yeast beta-glucansupplement reduces upper respiratory symptoms and improves mood state in stressed women.J Am CollNutr, 2012.31(4):295-300.*
  • Samuelsen, et al., Effects of orally administered yeast-derived beta-glucans: a review.MolNutrFood Res, 2014.58(1):183-193. †

Healthy inflammatory response

Beta-glucan from baker’s yeast promotes healthy inflammatory response.

  • Breivik, et al., Soluble beta-1,3/1,6-glucan from yeast inhibits experimental periodontal disease in Wistarrats.J ClinPeriodontol, 2005.32(4):347-352. ⱡ β
  • Sandvik, et al., Oral and systemic administration of beta-glucan protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced shock and organ injury in rats.ClinExpImmunol, 2007.148(1):168-177. ⱡ β
  • Sener, et al., Protective effect of beta-glucan against oxidative organ injury in a rat model of sepsis.IntImmunopharmacol, 2005.5(9):1387-1396. ⱡ
  • Aarsaether, et al., Cardioprotective effect of pretreatment with beta-glucanin coronary artery bypass grafting.ScandCardiovascJ, 2006.40(5):298-304.* β
  • Preus, et al., A randomized, single-blind, parallel-group clinical study to evaluate the effect of soluble beta-1,3/1,6-glucan on experimental gingivitis in man.J ClinPeriodontol, 2008.35(3):236-241.* β
  • Kirmaz, et al., Effects of glucan treatment on the Th1/Th2 balance in patients with allergic rhinitis: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.EurCytokine Netw, 2005.16(2):128-134.*
  • Talbott, et al., Beta-glucan supplementation, allergy symptoms, and quality of life in self-described ragweed allergy sufferers.Food SciNutr, 2013.1(1):90-101.*

Skin health

Beta-glucan from baker’s yeast has been used as an ingredient in skin care for a long time and is attractive because of its positive effects on skin tissue and potential in skin repair.

  • Wolk and Danon, Promotion of wound healing by yeast glucanevaluated on single animals.Med Biol, 1985.63(2):73-80. ⱡ
  • Berdal, et al., Aminatedbeta-1,3-D-glucan improves wound healing in diabetic db/dbmice.Wound Repair Regen, 2007. 15(6):825-832. ⱡ β
  • Karaaslan, et al., Case series of topical and orally administered beta-glucanfor the treatment of diabetic wounds: clinical study. J CutanMed Surg, 2012.16(3):180-186.*
  • Medeiros, et al., Effects of purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae(1->3)-beta-glucanon venous ulcer healing.IntJ MolSci, 2012.13(7):8142-8158.*
  • Zykova, et al., Macrophage stimulating agent soluble yeast beta-1,3/1,6-glucan as a topical treatment of diabetic foot and leg ulcers: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled phase II study.J Diabetes Investig, 2014.5(4):392-399.* β
  • Cognis, Report: Highcareen GS-and GP-β-Glucans for effective anti-wrinkle-products. Internal company information, 1999.* β

Health and performance in athletes

Beta-glucan from baker’s yeast has positive effects on the immune status of athletes. Athletes expose themselves to hard physical (muscular, circulatory as well as respiratory) stress, which renders their immune system particularly vulnerable.

  • Biotec Pharmacon ASA, NBG® reduced sick leave with 44,2 % in a one year study. Internal company information, 2006.* β
  • Talbottand Talbott, Effect of beta-1,3/1,6-glucan on upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and mood state in marathon athletes. J Sports SciMed, 2009.8(4):509-515.*
  • Carpenter, et al., Baker’s yeast beta-glucan supplementation increases monocytes and cytokines post-exercise: implications for infection risk? Br J Nutr, 2013.109(3):478-486.*


The positive effects of beta-1,3/1,6-glucan from baker’s yeast on mucosal immunity that have been found in adults, have been demonstrated also in children.

  • Richter, et al., Clinical trials of yeast-derived beta-(1,3) glucanin children: effects on innate immunity.Ann TranslMed, 2014.2(2):15.*
  • Richter, et al., Beta-glucan affects mucosal immunity in children with chronic respiratory problems under physical stress: clinical trials. Ann TranslMed, 2015.3(4):52.*
  • Vetvicka, et al., Placebo-driven clinical trials of yeast-derived β-(1-3)-glucanin children with chronic respiratory problems. Ann TranslMed 2013.1(3):26.*
  • Zhou, et al., Baker’s yeast beta-glucan decreases episodes of common childhood illness in 1- to 4-year-old children during cold season in China J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2016.40(1): 115-144.*


Legend: * clinical trials † reviews ⱡ preclinical studies β studies with NBG®